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An ability that is only represented by a single keyword in a card's text, for example Flying.

Some abilities occur so frequently in cards that they may only represented by a single word in the card text. On some cards the keyword is accompanied by reminder text that explains the keyword, particularity in the core set where the keyword was introduced.

Not all keyword abilities are applicable to the MTG Arena game, see Abilities for information on the abilities that are relevant to MTG Arena.

Comprehensive RulesEdit

ListEdit

Comprehensive Rules (October 5, 2018)

  • 702. Keyword Abilities
    • 702.1. Most abilities describe exactly what they do in the card’s rules text. Some, though, are very common or would require too much space to define on the card. In these cases, the object lists only the name of the ability as a “keyword”; sometimes reminder text summarizes the game rule.
    • 702.2. Deathtouch
    • 702.3. Defender
    • 702.4. Double Strike
    • 702.5. Enchant
    • 702.6. Equip
    • 702.7. First Strike
    • 702.8. Flash
    • 702.9. Flying
    • 702.10. Haste
    • 702.11. Hexproof
    • 702.12. Indestructible
    • 702.13. Intimidate
    • 702.14. Landwalk
    • 702.15. Lifelink
    • 702.16. Protection
    • 702.17. Reach
    • 702.18. Shroud
    • 702.19. Trample
    • 702.20. Vigilance
    • 702.21. Banding
    • 702.22. Rampage
    • 702.23. Cumulative Upkeep
    • 702.24. Flanking
    • 702.25. Phasing
    • 702.26. Buyback
    • 702.27. Shadow
    • 702.28. Cycling
    • 702.29. Echo
    • 702.30. Horsemanship
    • 702.31. Fading
    • 702.32. Kicker
    • 702.33. Flashback
    • 702.34. Madness
    • 702.35. Fear
    • 702.36. Morph
    • 702.37. Amplify
    • 702.38. Provoke
    • 702.39. Storm
    • 702.40. Affinity
    • 702.41. Entwine
    • 702.42. Modular
    • 702.43. Sunburst
    • 702.44. Bushido
    • 702.45. Soulshift
    • 702.46. Splice
    • 702.47. Offering
    • 702.48. Ninjutsu
    • 702.49. Epic
    • 702.50. Convoke
    • 702.51. Dredge
    • 702.52. Transmute
    • 702.53. Bloodthirst
    • 702.54. Haunt
    • 702.55. Replicate
    • 702.56. Forecast
    • 702.57. Graft
    • 702.58. Recover
    • 702.59. Ripple
    • 702.60. Split Second
    • 702.61. Suspend
    • 702.62. Vanishing
    • 702.63. Absorb
    • 702.64. Aura Swap
    • 702.65. Delve
    • 702.66. Fortify
    • 702.67. Frenzy
    • 702.68. Gravestorm
    • 702.69. Poisonous
    • 702.70. Transfigure
    • 702.71. Champion
    • 702.72. Changeling
    • 702.73. Evoke
    • 702.74. Hideaway
    • 702.75. Prowl
    • 702.76. Reinforce
    • 702.77. Conspire
    • 702.78. Persist
    • 702.79. Wither
    • 702.80. Retrace
    • 702.81. Devour
    • 702.82. Exalted
    • 702.83. Unearth
    • 702.84. Cascade
    • 702.85. Annihilator
    • 702.86. Level Up
    • 702.87. Rebound
    • 702.88. Totem Armor
    • 702.89. Infect
    • 702.90. Battle Cry
    • 702.91. Living Weapon
    • 702.92. Undying
    • 702.93. Miracle
    • 702.94. Soulbond
    • 702.95. Overload
    • 702.96. Scavenge
    • 702.97. Unleash
    • 702.98. Cipher
    • 702.99. Evolve
    • 702.100. Extort
    • 702.101. Fuse
    • 702.102. Bestow
    • 702.103. Tribute
    • 702.104. Dethrone
    • 702.105. Hidden Agenda
    • 702.106. Outlast
    • 702.107. Prowess
    • 702.108. Dash
    • 702.109. Exploit
    • 702.110. Menace
    • 702.111. Renown
    • 702.112. Awaken
    • 702.113. Devoid
    • 702.114. Ingest
    • 702.115. Myriad
    • 702.116. Surge
    • 702.117. Skulk
    • 702.118. Emerge
    • 702.119. Escalate
    • 702.120. Melee
    • 702.121. Crew
    • 702.122. Fabricate
    • 702.123. Partner
    • 702.124. Undaunted
    • 702.125. Improvise
    • 702.126. Aftermath
    • 702.127. Embalm
    • 702.128. Eternalize
    • 702.129. Afflict
    • 702.130. Ascend
    • 702.131. Assist
    • 702.132. Jump-Start
    • 702.133. Mentor

Full rulesEdit

Comprehensive Rules (October 5, 2018)

  • 702. Keyword Abilities
    • 702.1. Most abilities describe exactly what they do in the card’s rules text. Some, though, are very common or would require too much space to define on the card. In these cases, the object lists only the name of the ability as a “keyword”; sometimes reminder text summarizes the game rule.
      • 702.1a If an effect refers to a “[keyword ability] cost,” it refers only to the variable costs for that keyword.

        Example: Varolz, the Scar-Striped has an ability that says “Each creature card in your graveyard has scavenge. The scavenge cost is equal to its mana cost.” A creature card’s scavenge cost is an amount of mana equal to its mana cost, and the activation cost of the scavenge ability is that amount of mana plus “Exile this card from your graveyard.”

      • 702.1b An effect that grants an object a keyword ability may define a variable in that ability based on characteristics of that object or other information about the game state. For these abilities, the value of that variable is constantly reevaluated.

        Example: Volcano Hellion has the ability “Volcano Hellion has echo CX, where X is your life total.” If your life total is 10 when Volcano Hellion’s echo ability triggers but 5 when it resolves, the echo cost to pay is C5.

        Example: Fire//Ice is a split card whose halves have the mana costs C1Color R and C1Color U. Past in Flames reads “Each instant and sorcery card in your graveyard gains flashback until end of turn. The flashback cost is equal to its mana cost.” Fire//Ice has “Flashback C2Color UColor R” while it is in your graveyard, but if you choose to cast Fire, the resulting spell has “Flashback C1Color R.”

    • 702.2. Deathtouch
      • 702.2a Deathtouch is a static ability.
      • 702.2b A creature with toughness greater than 0 that’s been dealt damage by a source with deathtouch since the last time state-based actions were checked is destroyed as a state-based action. See rule 704.
      • 702.2c Any nonzero amount of combat damage assigned to a creature by a source with deathtouch is considered to be lethal damage for the purposes of determining if a proposed combat damage assignment is valid, regardless of that creature’s toughness. See rules 510.1c–d.
      • 702.2d The deathtouch rules function no matter what zone an object with deathtouch deals damage from.
      • 702.2e If an object changes zones before an effect causes it to deal damage, its last known information is used to determine whether it had deathtouch.
      • 702.2f Multiple instances of deathtouch on the same object are redundant.
    • 702.3. Defender
      • 702.3a Defender is a static ability.
      • 702.3b A creature with defender can’t attack.
      • 702.3c Multiple instances of defender on the same creature are redundant.
    • 702.4. Double Strike
      • 702.4a Double strike is a static ability that modifies the rules for the combat damage step. (See rule 510, “Combat Damage Step.”)
      • 702.4b If at least one attacking or blocking creature has first strike (see rule 702.7) or double strike as the combat damage step begins, the only creatures that assign combat damage in that step are those with first strike or double strike. After that step, instead of proceeding to the end of combat step, the phase gets a second combat damage step. The only creatures that assign combat damage in that step are the remaining attackers and blockers that had neither first strike nor double strike as the first combat damage step began, as well as the remaining attackers and blockers that currently have double strike. After that step, the phase proceeds to the end of combat step.
      • 702.4c Removing double strike from a creature during the first combat damage step will stop it from assigning combat damage in the second combat damage step.
      • 702.4d Giving double strike to a creature with first strike after it has already dealt combat damage in the first combat damage step will allow the creature to assign combat damage in the second combat damage step.
      • 702.4e Multiple instances of double strike on the same creature are redundant.
    • 702.5. Enchant
      • 702.5a Enchant is a static ability, written “Enchant [object or player].” The enchant ability restricts what an Aura spell can target and what an Aura can enchant.
      • 702.5b For more information about Auras, see rule 303, “Enchantments.”
      • 702.5c If an Aura has multiple instances of enchant, all of them apply. The Aura’s target must follow the restrictions from all the instances of enchant. The Aura can enchant only objects or players that match all of its enchant abilities.
      • 702.5d Auras that can enchant a player can target and be attached to players. Such Auras can’t target permanents and can’t be attached to permanents.
    • 702.6. Equip
      • 702.6a Equip is an activated ability of Equipment cards. “Equip [cost]” means “[Cost]: Attach this permanent to target creature you control. Activate this ability only any time you could cast a sorcery.”
      • 702.6b For more information about Equipment, see rule 301, “Artifacts.”
      • 702.6c “Equip [quality] creature” is a variant of the equip ability. “Equip [quality] [cost]” means “[Cost]: Attach this permanent to target [quality] creature you control. Activate this ability only any time you could cast a sorcery.” This ability doesn’t restrict what the Equipment may be attached to.
      • 702.6d An “equip [quality] creature” ability is an equip ability, and an “equip [quality] creature” cost is an equip cost. Any effect that modifies how or whether a player may activate an equip ability of an object affects “equip [quality] creature” abilities of that object. Any effect that increases or reduces an equip cost will increase or reduce a “equip [quality] creature” cost.
      • 702.6e If a permanent has multiple equip abilities, any of its equip abilities may be activated.
    • 702.7. First Strike
      • 702.7a First strike is a static ability that modifies the rules for the combat damage step. (See rule 510, “Combat Damage Step.”)
      • 702.7b If at least one attacking or blocking creature has first strike or double strike (see rule 702.4) as the combat damage step begins, the only creatures that assign combat damage in that step are those with first strike or double strike. After that step, instead of proceeding to the end of combat step, the phase gets a second combat damage step. The only creatures that assign combat damage in that step are the remaining attackers and blockers that had neither first strike nor double strike as the first combat damage step began, as well as the remaining attackers and blockers that currently have double strike. After that step, the phase proceeds to the end of combat step.
      • 702.7c Giving first strike to a creature without it after combat damage has already been dealt in the first combat damage step won’t preclude that creature from assigning combat damage in the second combat damage step. Removing first strike from a creature after it has already dealt combat damage in the first combat damage step won’t allow it to also assign combat damage in the second combat damage step (unless the creature has double strike).
      • 702.7d Multiple instances of first strike on the same creature are redundant.
    • 702.8. Flash
      • 702.8a Flash is a static ability that functions in any zone from which you could play the card it’s on. “Flash” means “You may play this card any time you could cast an instant.”
      • 702.8b Multiple instances of flash on the same object are redundant.
    • 702.9. Flying
      • 702.9a Flying is an evasion ability.
      • 702.9b A creature with flying can’t be blocked except by creatures with flying and/or reach. A creature with flying can block a creature with or without flying. (See rule 509, “Declare Blockers Step,” and rule 702.17, “Reach.”)
      • 702.9c Multiple instances of flying on the same creature are redundant.
    • 702.10. Haste
      • 702.10a Haste is a static ability.
      • 702.10b If a creature has haste, it can attack even if it hasn’t been controlled by its controller continuously since their most recent turn began. (See rule 302.6.)
      • 702.10c If a creature has haste, its controller can activate its activated abilities whose cost includes the tap symbol or the untap symbol even if that creature hasn’t been controlled by that player continuously since their most recent turn began. (See rule 302.6.)
      • 702.10d Multiple instances of haste on the same creature are redundant.
    • 702.11. Hexproof
      • 702.11a Hexproof is a static ability.
      • 702.11b “Hexproof” on a permanent means “This permanent can’t be the target of spells or abilities your opponents control.”
      • 702.11c “Hexproof” on a player means “You can’t be the target of spells or abilities your opponents control.”
      • 702.11d “Hexproof from [quality]” is a variant of the hexproof ability. “Hexproof from [quality]” on a permanent means “This permanent can’t be the target of [quality] spells your opponents control or abilities your opponents control from [quality] sources.” A “hexproof from [quality]” ability is a hexproof ability.
      • 702.11e Any effect that causes an object to lose hexproof will cause an object to lose all “hexproof from [quality]” abilities. Any effect that allows a player to choose a creature with hexproof as a target as though it didn’t have hexproof will allow a player to choose a creature with a “hexproof from [quality]” ability. Any effect that looks for a card with hexproof will find a card with a “hexproof from [quality]” ability.
      • 702.11f Multiple instances of the same hexproof ability on the same permanent or player are redundant.
    • 702.12. Indestructible
      • 702.12a Indestructible is a static ability.
      • 702.12b A permanent with indestructible can’t be destroyed. Such permanents aren’t destroyed by lethal damage, and they ignore the state-based action that checks for lethal damage (see rule 704.5g).
      • 702.12c Multiple instances of indestructible on the same permanent are redundant.
    • 702.13. Intimidate
      • 702.13a Intimidate is an evasion ability.
      • 702.13b A creature with intimidate can’t be blocked except by artifact creatures and/or creatures that share a color with it. (See rule 509, “Declare Blockers Step.”)
      • 702.13c Multiple instances of intimidate on the same creature are redundant.
    • 702.14. Landwalk
      • 702.14a Landwalk is a generic term that appears within an object’s rules text as “[type]walk,” where [type] is usually a subtype, but can be the card type land, any land type, any supertype, or any combination thereof.
      • 702.14b Landwalk is an evasion ability.
      • 702.14c A creature with landwalk can’t be blocked as long as the defending player controls at least one land with the specified subtype (as in “islandwalk”), with the specified supertype (as in “legendary landwalk”), without the specified supertype (as in “nonbasic landwalk”), or with both the specified supertype and the specified subtype (as in “snow swampwalk”). (See rule 509, “Declare Blockers Step.”)
      • 702.14d Landwalk abilities don’t “cancel” one another.

        Example: If a player controls a snow Forest, that player can’t block an attacking creature with snow forestwalk even if they also control a creature with snow forestwalk.

      • 702.14e Multiple instances of the same kind of landwalk on the same creature are redundant.
    • 702.15. Lifelink
      • 702.15a Lifelink is a static ability.
      • 702.15b Damage dealt by a source with lifelink causes that source’s controller, or its owner if it has no controller, to gain that much life (in addition to any other results that damage causes). See rule 119.3.
      • 702.15c If a permanent leaves the battlefield before an effect causes it to deal damage, its last known information is used to determine whether it had lifelink.
      • 702.15d The lifelink rules function no matter what zone an object with lifelink deals damage from.
      • 702.15e If multiple sources with lifelink deal damage at the same time, they cause separate life gain events (see rule 118.9).

        Example: A player controls Ajani’s Pridemate, which reads “Whenever you gain life, you may put a +1/+1 counter on Ajani’s Pridemate,” and two creatures with lifelink. The creatures with lifelink deal combat damage simultaneously. Ajani’s Pridemate’s ability triggers twice.

      • 702.15f Multiple instances of lifelink on the same object are redundant.
    • 702.16. Protection
      • 702.16a Protection is a static ability, written “Protection from [quality].” This quality is usually a color (as in “protection from black”) but can be any characteristic value or information. If the quality happens to be a card name, it is treated as such only if the protection ability specifies that the quality is a name. If the quality is a card type, subtype, or supertype, the ability applies to sources that are permanents with that card type, subtype, or supertype and to any sources not on the battlefield that are of that card type, subtype, or supertype. This is an exception to rule 109.2.
      • 702.16b A permanent or player with protection can’t be targeted by spells with the stated quality and can’t be targeted by abilities from a source with the stated quality.
      • 702.16c A permanent or player with protection can’t be enchanted by Auras that have the stated quality. Such Auras attached to the permanent or player with protection will be put into their owners’ graveyards as a state-based action. (See rule 704, “State-Based Actions.”)
      • 702.16d A permanent with protection can’t be equipped by Equipment that have the stated quality or fortified by Fortifications that have the stated quality. Such Equipment or Fortifications become unattached from that permanent as a state-based action, but remain on the battlefield. (See rule 704, “State-Based Actions.”)
      • 702.16e Any damage that would be dealt by sources that have the stated quality to a permanent or player with protection is prevented.
      • 702.16f Attacking creatures with protection can’t be blocked by creatures that have the stated quality.
      • 702.16g “Protection from [quality A] and from [quality B]” is shorthand for “protection from [quality A]” and “protection from [quality B]”; it behaves as two separate protection abilities. If an effect causes an object with such an ability to lose protection from [quality A], for example, that object would still have protection from [quality B].
      • 702.16h “Protection from all [characteristic]” is shorthand for “protection from [quality A],” “protection from [quality B],” and so on for each possible quality the listed characteristic could have; it behaves as multiple separate protection abilities. If an effect causes an object with such an ability to lose protection from [quality A], for example, that object would still have protection from [quality B], [quality C], and so on.
      • 702.16i “Protection from everything” is a variant of the protection ability. A permanent with protection from everything has protection from each object regardless of that object’s characteristic values. Such a permanent can’t be targeted by spells or abilities, enchanted by Auras, equipped by Equipment, fortified by Fortifications, or blocked by creatures, and all damage that would be dealt to it is prevented.
      • 702.16j “Protection from [a player]” is a variant of the protection ability. A permanent with protection from a specific player has protection from each object the player controls and protection from each object the player owns not controlled by another player, regardless of that object’s characteristic values. Such a permanent can’t be targeted by spells or abilities the player controls, enchanted by Auras the player controls, equipped by Equipment the player controls, fortified by Fortifications the player controls, or blocked by creatures the player controls, and all damage that would be dealt to it by sources controlled by the player or owned by the player but not controlled by another player is prevented.
      • 702.16k Multiple instances of protection from the same quality on the same permanent or player are redundant.
      • 702.16m Some Auras both give the enchanted creature protection and say “this effect doesn’t remove” either that specific Aura or all Auras. This means that the specified Auras can legally enchant that creature and aren’t put into their owners’ graveyards as a state-based action. If the creature has other instances of protection from the same quality, those instances affect Auras as normal.
    • 702.17. Reach
      • 702.17a Reach is a static ability.
      • 702.17b A creature with flying can’t be blocked except by creatures with flying and/or reach. (See rule 509, “Declare Blockers Step,” and rule 702.9, “Flying.”)
      • 702.17c Multiple instances of reach on the same creature are redundant.
    • 702.18. Shroud
      • 702.18a Shroud is a static ability. “Shroud” means “This permanent or player can’t be the target of spells or abilities.”
      • 702.18b Multiple instances of shroud on the same permanent or player are redundant.
    • 702.19. Trample
      • 702.19a Trample is a static ability that modifies the rules for assigning an attacking creature’s combat damage. The ability has no effect when a creature with trample is blocking or is dealing noncombat damage. (See rule 510, “Combat Damage Step.”)
      • 702.19b The controller of an attacking creature with trample first assigns damage to the creature(s) blocking it. Once all those blocking creatures are assigned lethal damage, any remaining damage is assigned as its controller chooses among those blocking creatures and the player or planeswalker the creature is attacking. When checking for assigned lethal damage, take into account damage already marked on the creature and damage from other creatures that’s being assigned during the same combat damage step, but not any abilities or effects that might change the amount of damage that’s actually dealt. The attacking creature’s controller need not assign lethal damage to all those blocking creatures but in that case can’t assign any damage to the player or planeswalker it’s attacking.

        Example: A 2/2 creature that can block an additional creature blocks two attackers: a 1/1 with no abilities and a 3/3 with trample. The active player could assign 1 damage from the first attacker and 1 damage from the second to the blocking creature, and 2 damage to the defending player from the creature with trample.

        Example: A 6/6 green creature with trample is blocked by a 2/2 creature with protection from green. The attacking creature’s controller must assign at least 2 damage to the blocker, even though that damage will be prevented by the blocker’s protection ability. The attacking creature’s controller can divide the rest of the damage as they choose between the blocking creature and the defending player.

      • 702.19c If an attacking creature with trample is blocked, but there are no creatures blocking it when damage is assigned, all its damage is assigned to the player or planeswalker it’s attacking.
      • 702.19d If a creature with trample is attacking a planeswalker, none of its combat damage can be assigned to the defending player, even if that planeswalker has been removed from combat or the damage the attacking creature could assign is greater than the planeswalker’s loyalty.
      • 702.19e Multiple instances of trample on the same creature are redundant.
    • 702.20. Vigilance
      • 702.20a Vigilance is a static ability that modifies the rules for the declare attackers step.
      • 702.20b Attacking doesn’t cause creatures with vigilance to tap. (See rule 508, “Declare Attackers Step.”)
      • 702.20c Multiple instances of vigilance on the same creature are redundant.
    • 702.21. Banding
      • 702.21a Banding is a static ability that modifies the rules for combat.
      • 702.21b “Bands with other” is a special form of banding. If an effect causes a permanent to lose banding, the permanent loses all “bands with other” abilities as well.
      • 702.21c As a player declares attackers, they may declare that one or more attacking creatures with banding and up to one attacking creature without banding (even if it has “bands with other”) are all in a “band.” They may also declare that one or more attacking [quality] creatures with “bands with other [quality]” and any number of other attacking [quality] creatures are all in a band. A player may declare as many attacking bands as they want, but each creature may be a member of only one of them. (Defending players can’t declare bands but may use banding in a different way; see rule 702.21j.)
      • 702.21d All creatures in an attacking band must attack the same player or planeswalker.
      • 702.21e Once an attacking band has been announced, it lasts for the rest of combat, even if something later removes banding or “bands with other” from one or more of the creatures in the band.
      • 702.21f An attacking creature that’s removed from combat is also removed from the band it was in.
      • 702.21g Banding doesn’t cause attacking creatures to share abilities, nor does it remove any abilities. The attacking creatures in a band are separate permanents.
      • 702.21h If an attacking creature becomes blocked by a creature, each other creature in the same band as the attacking creature becomes blocked by that same blocking creature.

        Example: A player attacks with a band consisting of a creature with flying and a creature with swampwalk. The defending player, who controls a Swamp, can block the flying creature if able. If they do, then the creature with swampwalk will also become blocked by the blocking creature(s).

      • 702.21i If one member of a band would become blocked due to an effect, the entire band becomes blocked.
      • 702.21j During the combat damage step, if an attacking creature is being blocked by a creature with banding, or by both a [quality] creature with “bands with other [quality]” and another [quality] creature, the defending player (rather than the active player) chooses how the attacking creature’s damage is assigned. That player can divide that creature’s combat damage as they choose among any number of creatures blocking it. This is an exception to the procedure described in rule 510.1c.
      • 702.21k During the combat damage step, if a blocking creature is blocking a creature with banding, or both a [quality] creature with “bands with other [quality]” and another [quality] creature, the active player (rather than the defending player) chooses how the blocking creature’s damage is assigned. That player can divide that creature’s combat damage as they choose among any number of creatures it’s blocking. This is an exception to the procedure described in rule 510.1d.
      • 702.21m Multiple instances of banding on the same creature are redundant. Multiple instances of “bands with other” of the same kind on the same creature are redundant.
    • 702.22. Rampage
      • 702.22a Rampage is a triggered ability. “Rampage N” means “Whenever this creature becomes blocked, it gets +N/+N until end of turn for each creature blocking it beyond the first.” (See rule 509, “Declare Blockers Step.”)
      • 702.22b The rampage bonus is calculated only once per combat, when the triggered ability resolves. Adding or removing blockers later in combat won’t change the bonus.
      • 702.22c If a creature has multiple instances of rampage, each triggers separately.
    • 702.23. Cumulative Upkeep
      • 702.23a Cumulative upkeep is a triggered ability that imposes an increasing cost on a permanent. “Cumulative upkeep [cost]” means “At the beginning of your upkeep, if this permanent is on the battlefield, put an age counter on this permanent. Then you may pay [cost] for each age counter on it. If you don’t, sacrifice it.” If [cost] has choices associated with it, each choice is made separately for each age counter, then either the entire set of costs is paid, or none of them is paid. Partial payments aren’t allowed.

        Example: A creature has “Cumulative upkeep Color W or Color U” and two age counters on it. When its ability next triggers and resolves, the creature’s controller puts an age counter on it and then may pay Color WColor WColor W, Color WColor WColor U, Color WColor UColor U, or Color UColor UColor U to keep the creature on the battlefield.

        Example: A creature has “Cumulative upkeep—Sacrifice a creature” and one age counter on it. When its ability next triggers and resolves, its controller can’t choose the same creature to sacrifice twice. Either two different creatures must be sacrificed, or the creature with cumulative upkeep must be sacrificed.

      • 702.23b If a permanent has multiple instances of cumulative upkeep, each triggers separately. However, the age counters are not connected to any particular ability; each cumulative upkeep ability will count the total number of age counters on the permanent at the time that ability resolves.

        Example: A creature has two instances of “Cumulative upkeep—Pay 1 life.” The creature has no age counters, and both cumulative upkeep abilities trigger. When the first ability resolves, the controller adds a counter and then chooses to pay 1 life. When the second ability resolves, the controller adds another counter and then chooses to pay an additional 2 life.

    • 702.24. Flanking
      • 702.24a Flanking is a triggered ability that triggers during the declare blockers step. (See rule 509, “Declare Blockers Step.”) “Flanking” means “Whenever this creature becomes blocked by a creature without flanking, the blocking creature gets -1/-1 until end of turn.”
      • 702.24b If a creature has multiple instances of flanking, each triggers separately.
    • 702.25. Phasing
      • 702.25a Phasing is a static ability that modifies the rules of the untap step. During each player’s untap step, before the active player untaps permanents, all phased-in permanents with phasing that player controls “phase out.” Simultaneously, all phased-out permanents that had phased out under that player’s control “phase in.”
      • 702.25b If a permanent phases out, its status changes to “phased out.” Except for rules and effects that specifically mention phased-out permanents, a phased-out permanent is treated as though it does not exist. It can’t affect or be affected by anything else in the game. A permanent that phases out is removed from combat. (See rule 506.4.)

        Example: You control three creatures, one of which is phased out. You cast a spell that says “Draw a card for each creature you control.” You draw two cards.

        Example: You control a phased-out creature. You cast a spell that says “Destroy all creatures.” The phased-out creature is not destroyed.

      • 702.25c If a permanent phases in, its status changes to “phased in.” The game once again treats it as though it exists.
      • 702.25d The phasing event doesn’t actually cause a permanent to change zones or control, even though it’s treated as though it’s not on the battlefield and not under its controller’s control while it’s phased out. Zone-change triggers don’t trigger when a permanent phases in or out. Tokens continue to exist on the battlefield while phased out. Counters remain on a permanent while it’s phased out. Effects that check a phased-in permanent’s history won’t treat the phasing event as having caused the permanent to leave or enter the battlefield or its controller’s control.
      • 702.25e Continuous effects that affect a phased-out permanent may expire while that permanent is phased out. If so, they will no longer affect that permanent once it’s phased in. In particular, effects with “for as long as” durations that track that permanent (see rule 611.2b) end when that permanent phases out because they can no longer see it.
      • 702.25f When a permanent phases out, any Auras, Equipment, or Fortifications attached to that permanent phase out at the same time. This alternate way of phasing out is known as phasing out “indirectly.” An Aura, Equipment, or Fortification that phased out indirectly won’t phase in by itself, but instead phases in along with the permanent it’s attached to.
      • 702.25g If an object would simultaneously phase out directly and indirectly, it just phases out indirectly.
      • 702.25h An Aura, Equipment, or Fortification that phased out directly will phase in attached to the object or player it was attached to when it phased out, if that object is still in the same zone or that player is still in the game. If not, that Aura, Equipment, or Fortification phases in unattached. State-based actions apply as appropriate. (See rules 704.5m and 704.5n.)
      • 702.25i Abilities that trigger when a permanent becomes attached or unattached from an object or player don’t trigger when that permanent phases in or out.
      • 702.25j Phased-out permanents owned by a player who leaves the game also leave the game. This doesn’t trigger zone-change triggers. See rule 800.4.
      • 702.25k If an effect causes a player to skip their untap step, the phasing event simply doesn’t occur that turn.
      • 702.25m In a multiplayer game, game rules may cause a phased-out permanent to leave the game or to be exiled once a player leaves the game. (See rules 800.4a and 800.4c.) If a phased-out permanent phased out under the control of a player who has left the game, that permanent phases in during the next untap step after that player’s next turn would have begun.
      • 702.25n Multiple instances of phasing on the same permanent are redundant.
    • 702.26. Buyback
      • 702.26a Buyback appears on some instants and sorceries. It represents two static abilities that function while the spell is on the stack. “Buyback [cost]” means “You may pay an additional [cost] as you cast this spell” and “If the buyback cost was paid, put this spell into its owner’s hand instead of into that player’s graveyard as it resolves.” Paying a spell’s buyback cost follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2f–h.
    • 702.27. Shadow
      • 702.27a Shadow is an evasion ability.
      • 702.27b A creature with shadow can’t be blocked by creatures without shadow, and a creature without shadow can’t be blocked by creatures with shadow. (See rule 509, “Declare Blockers Step.”)
      • 702.27c Multiple instances of shadow on the same creature are redundant.
    • 702.28. Cycling
      • 702.28a Cycling is an activated ability that functions only while the card with cycling is in a player’s hand. “Cycling [cost]” means “[Cost], Discard this card: Draw a card.”
      • 702.28b Although the cycling ability can be activated only if the card is in a player’s hand, it continues to exist while the object is on the battlefield and in all other zones. Therefore objects with cycling will be affected by effects that depend on objects having one or more activated abilities.
      • 702.28c Some cards with cycling have abilities that trigger when they’re cycled. “When you cycle [this card]” means “When you discard [this card] to pay an activation cost of a cycling ability.” These abilities trigger from whatever zone the card winds up in after it’s cycled.
      • 702.28d Some cards have abilities that trigger whenever a player “cycles or discards” a card. These abilities trigger only once when a card is cycled.
      • 702.28e Typecycling is a variant of the cycling ability. “[Type]cycling [cost]” means “[Cost], Discard this card: Search your library for a [type] card, reveal it, and put it into your hand. Then shuffle your library.” This type is usually a subtype (as in “mountaincycling”) but can be any card type, subtype, supertype, or combination thereof (as in “basic landcycling”).
      • 702.28f Typecycling abilities are cycling abilities, and typecycling costs are cycling costs. Any cards that trigger when a player cycles a card will trigger when a card is discarded to pay an activation cost of a typecycling ability. Any effect that stops players from cycling cards will stop players from activating cards’ typecycling abilities. Any effect that increases or reduces a cycling cost will increase or reduce a typecycling cost. Any effect that looks for a card with cycling will find a card with typecycling.
    • 702.29. Echo
      • 702.29a Echo is a triggered ability. “Echo [cost]” means “At the beginning of your upkeep, if this permanent came under your control since the beginning of your last upkeep, sacrifice it unless you pay [cost].”
      • 702.29b Urza block cards with the echo ability were printed without an echo cost. These cards have been given errata in the Oracle card reference; each one now has an echo cost equal to its mana cost.
    • 702.30. Horsemanship
      • 702.30a Horsemanship is an evasion ability.
      • 702.30b A creature with horsemanship can’t be blocked by creatures without horsemanship. A creature with horsemanship can block a creature with or without horsemanship. (See rule 509, “Declare Blockers Step.”)
      • 702.30c Multiple instances of horsemanship on the same creature are redundant.
    • 702.31. Fading
      • 702.31a Fading is a keyword that represents two abilities. “Fading N” means “This permanent enters the battlefield with N fade counters on it” and “At the beginning of your upkeep, remove a fade counter from this permanent. If you can’t, sacrifice the permanent.”
    • 702.32. Kicker
      • 702.32a Kicker is a static ability that functions while the spell with kicker is on the stack. “Kicker [cost]” means “You may pay an additional [cost] as you cast this spell.” Paying a spell’s kicker cost(s) follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2f–h.
      • 702.32b The phrase “Kicker [cost 1] and/or [cost 2]” means the same thing as “Kicker [cost 1], kicker [cost 2].”
      • 702.32c Multikicker is a variant of the kicker ability. “Multikicker [cost]” means “You may pay an additional [cost] any number of times as you cast this spell.” A multikicker cost is a kicker cost.
      • 702.32d If a spell’s controller declares the intention to pay any of that spell’s kicker costs, that spell has been “kicked.” If a spell has two kicker costs or has multikicker, it may be kicked multiple times. See rule 601.2b.
      • 702.32e Objects with kicker or multikicker have additional abilities that specify what happens if they are kicked. These abilities are linked to the kicker or multikicker abilities printed on that object: they can refer only to those specific kicker or multikicker abilities. See rule 607, “Linked Abilities.”
      • 702.32f Objects with more than one kicker cost have abilities that each correspond to a specific kicker cost. They contain the phrases “if it was kicked with its [A] kicker” and “if it was kicked with its [B] kicker,” where A and B are the first and second kicker costs listed on the card, respectively. Each of those abilities is linked to the appropriate kicker ability.
      • 702.32g If part of a spell’s ability has its effect only if that spell was kicked, and that part of the ability includes any targets, the spell’s controller chooses those targets only if that spell was kicked. Otherwise, the spell is cast as if it did not have those targets. See rule 601.2c.
    • 702.33. Flashback
      • 702.33a Flashback appears on some instants and sorceries. It represents two static abilities: one that functions while the card is in a player’s graveyard and another that functions while the card is on the stack. “Flashback [cost]” means “You may cast this card from your graveyard by paying [cost] rather than paying its mana cost” and “If the flashback cost was paid, exile this card instead of putting it anywhere else any time it would leave the stack.” Casting a spell using its flashback ability follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2f–h.
    • 702.34. Madness
      • 702.34a Madness is a keyword that represents two abilities. The first is a static ability that functions while the card with madness is in a player’s hand. The second is a triggered ability that functions when the first ability is applied. “Madness [cost]” means “If a player would discard this card, that player discards it, but exiles it instead of putting it into their graveyard” and “When this card is exiled this way, its owner may cast it by paying [cost] rather than paying its mana cost. If that player doesn’t, they put this card into their graveyard.”
      • 702.34b Casting a spell using its madness ability follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2f–h.
      • 702.34c After resolving a madness triggered ability, if the exiled card wasn’t cast and was moved to a public zone, effects referencing the discarded card can find that card. See rule 400.7i.
    • 702.35. Fear
      • 702.35a Fear is an evasion ability.
      • 702.35b A creature with fear can’t be blocked except by artifact creatures and/or black creatures. (See rule 509, “Declare Blockers Step.”)
      • 702.35c Multiple instances of fear on the same creature are redundant.
    • 702.36. Morph
      • 702.36a Morph is a static ability that functions in any zone from which you could play the card it’s on, and the morph effect works any time the card is face down. “Morph [cost]” means “You may cast this card as a 2/2 face-down creature with no text, no name, no subtypes, and no mana cost by paying C3 rather than paying its mana cost.” (See rule 707, “Face-Down Spells and Permanents.”)
      • 702.36b Megamorph is a variant of the morph ability. “Megamorph [cost]” means “You may cast this card as a 2/2 face-down creature with no text, no name, no subtypes, and no mana cost by paying C3 rather than paying its mana cost” and “As this permanent is turned face up, put a +1/+1 counter on it if its megamorph cost was paid to turn it face up.” A megamorph cost is a morph cost.
      • 702.36c To cast a card using its morph ability, turn it face down. It becomes a 2/2 face-down creature card with no text, no name, no subtypes, and no mana cost. Any effects or prohibitions that would apply to casting a card with these characteristics (and not the face-up card’s characteristics) are applied to casting this card. These values are the copiable values of that object’s characteristics. (See rule 613, “Interaction of Continuous Effects,” and rule 706, “Copying Objects.”) Put it onto the stack (as a face-down spell with the same characteristics), and pay C3 rather than pay its mana cost. This follows the rules for paying alternative costs. You can use a morph ability to cast a card from any zone from which you could normally play it. When the spell resolves, it enters the battlefield with the same characteristics the spell had. The morph effect applies to the face-down object wherever it is, and it ends when the permanent is turned face up.
      • 702.36d You can’t normally cast a card face down. A morph ability allows you to do so.
      • 702.36e Any time you have priority, you may turn a face-down permanent you control with a morph ability face up. This is a special action; it doesn’t use the stack (see rule 115). To do this, show all players what the permanent’s morph cost would be if it were face up, pay that cost, then turn the permanent face up. (If the permanent wouldn’t have a morph cost if it were face up, it can’t be turned face up this way.) The morph effect on it ends, and it regains its normal characteristics. Any abilities relating to the permanent entering the battlefield don’t trigger when it’s turned face up and don’t have any effect, because the permanent has already entered the battlefield.
      • 702.36f If a permanent’s morph cost includes X, other abilities of that permanent may also refer to X. The value of X in those abilities is equal to the value of X chosen as the morph special action was taken.
      • 702.36g See rule 707, “Face-Down Spells and Permanents,” for more information about how to cast cards with a morph ability.
    • 702.37. Amplify
      • 702.37a Amplify is a static ability. “Amplify N” means “As this object enters the battlefield, reveal any number of cards from your hand that share a creature type with it. This permanent enters the battlefield with N +1/+1 counters on it for each card revealed this way. You can’t reveal this card or any other cards that are entering the battlefield at the same time as this card.”
      • 702.37b If a creature has multiple instances of amplify, each one works separately.
    • 702.38. Provoke
      • 702.38a Provoke is a triggered ability. “Provoke” means “Whenever this creature attacks, you may choose to have target creature defending player controls block this creature this combat if able. If you do, untap that creature.”
      • 702.38b If a creature has multiple instances of provoke, each triggers separately.
    • 702.39. Storm
      • 702.39a Storm is a triggered ability that functions on the stack. “Storm” means “When you cast this spell, copy it for each other spell that was cast before it this turn. If the spell has any targets, you may choose new targets for any of the copies.”
      • 702.39b If a spell has multiple instances of storm, each triggers separately.
    • 702.40. Affinity
      • 702.40a Affinity is a static ability that functions while the spell with affinity is on the stack. “Affinity for [text]” means “This spell costs you C1 less to cast for each [text] you control.”
      • 702.40b If a spell has multiple instances of affinity, each of them applies.
    • 702.41. Entwine
      • 702.41a Entwine is a static ability of modal spells (see rule 700.2) that functions while the spell is on the stack. “Entwine [cost]” means “You may choose all modes of this spell instead of just one. If you do, you pay an additional [cost].” Using the entwine ability follows the rules for choosing modes and paying additional costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2f–h.
      • 702.41b If the entwine cost was paid, follow the text of each of the modes in the order written on the card when the spell resolves.
    • 702.42. Modular
      • 702.42a Modular represents both a static ability and a triggered ability. “Modular N” means “This permanent enters the battlefield with N +1/+1 counters on it” and “When this permanent is put into a graveyard from the battlefield, you may put a +1/+1 counter on target artifact creature for each +1/+1 counter on this permanent.”
      • 702.42b If a creature has multiple instances of modular, each one works separately.
    • 702.43. Sunburst
      • 702.43a Sunburst is a static ability that functions as an object is entering the battlefield. “Sunburst” means “If this object is entering the battlefield as a creature, ignoring any type-changing effects that would affect it, it enters the battlefield with a +1/+1 counter on it for each color of mana spent to cast it. Otherwise, it enters the battlefield with a charge counter on it for each color of mana spent to cast it.”
      • 702.43b Sunburst adds counters only if the object with sunburst is entering the battlefield from the stack as a resolving spell and only if one or more colored mana was spent on its costs, including additional or alternative costs.
      • 702.43c Sunburst can also be used to set a variable number for another ability. If the keyword is used in this way, it doesn’t matter whether the ability is on a creature spell or on a noncreature spell.

        Example: The ability “Modular—Sunburst” means “This permanent enters the battlefield with a +1/+1 counter on it for each color of mana spent to cast it” and “When this permanent is put into a graveyard from the battlefield, you may put a +1/+1 counter on target artifact creature for each +1/+1 counter on this permanent.”

      • 702.43d If an object has multiple instances of sunburst, each one works separately.
    • 702.44. Bushido
      • 702.44a Bushido is a triggered ability. “Bushido N” means “Whenever this creature blocks or becomes blocked, it gets +N/+N until end of turn.” (See rule 509, “Declare Blockers Step.”)
      • 702.44b If a creature has multiple instances of bushido, each triggers separately.
    • 702.45. Soulshift
      • 702.45a Soulshift is a triggered ability. “Soulshift N” means “When this permanent is put into a graveyard from the battlefield, you may return target Spirit card with converted mana cost N or less from your graveyard to your hand.”
      • 702.45b If a permanent has multiple instances of soulshift, each triggers separately.
    • 702.46. Splice
      • 702.46a Splice is a static ability that functions while a card is in your hand. “Splice onto [subtype] [cost]” means “You may reveal this card from your hand as you cast a [subtype] spell. If you do, copy this card’s text box onto that spell and pay [cost] as an additional cost to cast that spell.” Paying a card’s splice cost follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2f–h.

        Example: Since the card with splice remains in the player’s hand, it can later be cast normally or spliced onto another spell. It can even be discarded to pay a “discard a card” cost of the spell it’s spliced onto.

      • 702.46b You can’t choose to use a splice ability if you can’t make the required choices (targets, etc.) for that card’s instructions. You can’t splice any one card onto the same spell more than once. If you’re splicing more than one card onto a spell, reveal them all at once and choose the order in which their instructions will be followed. The instructions on the main spell have to be followed first.
      • 702.46c The spell has the characteristics of the main spell, plus the text boxes of each of the spliced cards. The spell doesn’t gain any other characteristics (name, mana cost, color, supertypes, card types, subtypes, etc.) of the spliced cards. Text copied onto the spell that refers to a card by name refers to the spell on the stack, not the card from which the text was copied.

        Example: Glacial Ray is a red card with splice onto Arcane that reads, “Glacial Ray deals 2 damage to any target.” Suppose Glacial Ray is spliced onto Reach Through Mists, a blue spell. The spell is still blue, and Reach Through Mists deals the damage. This means that the ability can target a creature with protection from red and deal 2 damage to that creature.

      • 702.46d Choose targets for the added text normally (see rule 601.2c). Note that a spell with one or more targets won’t resolve if all of its targets are illegal on resolution.
      • 702.46e The spell loses any splice changes once it leaves the stack for any reason.
    • 702.47. Offering
      • 702.47a Offering is a static ability that functions while the spell with offering is on the stack. “[Subtype] offering” means “As an additional cost to cast this spell, you may sacrifice a [subtype] permanent. If you chose to pay the additional cost, this spell’s total cost is reduced by the sacrificed permanent’s mana cost, and you may cast this spell any time you could cast an instant.”
      • 702.47b You choose which permanent to sacrifice as you make choices for the spell (see rule 601.2b), and you sacrifice that permanent as you pay the total cost (see rule 601.2h).
      • 702.47c Generic mana in the sacrificed permanent’s mana cost reduces generic mana in the spell’s total cost. Colored and colorless mana in the sacrificed permanent’s mana cost reduces mana of the same type in spell’s total cost, and any excess reduces that much generic mana in spell’s total cost.
    • 702.48. Ninjutsu
      • 702.48a Ninjutsu is an activated ability that functions only while the card with ninjutsu is in a player’s hand. “Ninjutsu [cost]” means “[Cost], Reveal this card from your hand, Return an unblocked attacking creature you control to its owner’s hand: Put this card onto the battlefield from your hand tapped and attacking.”
      • 702.48b The card with ninjutsu remains revealed from the time the ability is announced until the ability leaves the stack.
      • 702.48c A ninjutsu ability may be activated only while a creature on the battlefield is unblocked (see rule 509.1h). The creature with ninjutsu is put onto the battlefield unblocked. It will be attacking the same player or planeswalker as the creature that was returned to its owner’s hand.
      • 702.48d Commander ninjutsu is a variant of the ninjutsu ability that also functions while the card with commander ninjutsu is in the command zone. “Commander ninjutsu [cost]” means “[Cost], Reveal this card from your hand or from the command zone, Return an unblocked attacking creature you control to its owner’s hand: Put this card onto the battlefield tapped and attacking.”
    • 702.49. Epic
      • 702.49a Epic represents two spell abilities, one of which creates a delayed triggered ability. “Epic” means “For the rest of the game, you can’t cast spells,” and “At the beginning of each of your upkeeps for the rest of the game, copy this spell except for its epic ability. If the spell has any targets, you may choose new targets for the copy.” See rule 706.10.
      • 702.49b A player can’t cast spells once a spell with epic they control resolves, but effects (such as the epic ability itself) can still put copies of spells onto the stack.
    • 702.50. Convoke
      • 702.50a Convoke is a static ability that functions while the spell with convoke is on the stack. “Convoke” means “For each colored mana in this spell’s total cost, you may tap an untapped creature of that color you control rather than pay that mana. For each generic mana in this spell’s total cost, you may tap an untapped creature you control rather than pay that mana.”
      • 702.50b The convoke ability isn’t an additional or alternative cost and applies only after the total cost of the spell with convoke is determined.

        Example: Heartless Summoning says, in part, “Creature spells you cast cost C2 less to cast.” You control Heartless Summoning and cast Siege Wurm, a spell with convoke that costs C5Color GColor G. The total cost to cast Siege Wurm is C3Color GColor G. After activating mana abilities, you pay that total cost. You may tap up to two green creatures and up to three other creatures to pay that cost, and the remainder is paid with mana.

      • 702.50c A creature tapped to pay for mana in a spell’s total cost this way is said to have “convoked” that spell.
      • 702.50d Multiple instances of convoke on the same spell are redundant.
    • 702.51. Dredge
      • 702.51a Dredge is a static ability that functions only while the card with dredge is in a player’s graveyard. “Dredge N” means “As long as you have at least N cards in your library, if you would draw a card, you may instead put N cards from the top of your library into your graveyard and return this card from your graveyard to your hand.”
      • 702.51b A player with fewer cards in their library than the number required by a dredge ability can’t put any of them into their graveyard this way.
    • 702.52. Transmute
      • 702.52a Transmute is an activated ability that functions only while the card with transmute is in a player’s hand. “Transmute [cost]” means “[Cost], Discard this card: Search your library for a card with the same converted mana cost as the discarded card, reveal that card, and put it into your hand. Then shuffle your library. Activate this ability only any time you could cast a sorcery.”
      • 702.52b Although the transmute ability can be activated only if the card is in a player’s hand, it continues to exist while the object is on the battlefield and in all other zones. Therefore objects with transmute will be affected by effects that depend on objects having one or more activated abilities.
    • 702.53. Bloodthirst
      • 702.53a Bloodthirst is a static ability. “Bloodthirst N” means “If an opponent was dealt damage this turn, this permanent enters the battlefield with N +1/+1 counters on it.”
      • 702.53b “Bloodthirst X” is a special form of bloodthirst. “Bloodthirst X” means “This permanent enters the battlefield with X +1/+1 counters on it, where X is the total damage your opponents have been dealt this turn.”
      • 702.53c If an object has multiple instances of bloodthirst, each applies separately.
    • 702.54. Haunt
      • 702.54a Haunt is a triggered ability. “Haunt” on a permanent means “When this permanent is put into a graveyard from the battlefield, exile it haunting target creature.” “Haunt” on an instant or sorcery spell means “When this spell is put into a graveyard during its resolution, exile it haunting target creature.”
      • 702.54b Cards that are in the exile zone as the result of a haunt ability “haunt” the creature targeted by that ability. The phrase “creature it haunts” refers to the object targeted by the haunt ability, regardless of whether or not that object is still a creature.
      • 702.54c Triggered abilities of cards with haunt that refer to the haunted creature can trigger in the exile zone.
    • 702.55. Replicate
      • 702.55a Replicate is a keyword that represents two abilities. The first is a static ability that functions while the spell with replicate is on the stack. The second is a triggered ability that functions while the spell with replicate is on the stack. “Replicate [cost]” means “As an additional cost to cast this spell, you may pay [cost] any number of times” and “When you cast this spell, if a replicate cost was paid for it, copy it for each time its replicate cost was paid. If the spell has any targets, you may choose new targets for any of the copies.” Paying a spell’s replicate cost follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2f–h.
      • 702.55b If a spell has multiple instances of replicate, each is paid separately and triggers based on the payments made for it, not any other instance of replicate.
    • 702.56. Forecast
      • 702.56a A forecast ability is a special kind of activated ability that can be activated only from a player’s hand. It’s written “Forecast — [Activated ability].”
      • 702.56b A forecast ability may be activated only during the upkeep step of the card’s owner and only once each turn. The controller of the forecast ability reveals the card with that ability from their hand as the ability is activated. That player plays with that card revealed in their hand until it leaves the player’s hand or until a step or phase that isn’t an upkeep step begins, whichever comes first.
    • 702.57. Graft
      • 702.57a Graft represents both a static ability and a triggered ability. “Graft N” means “This permanent enters the battlefield with N +1/+1 counters on it” and “Whenever another creature enters the battlefield, if this permanent has a +1/+1 counter on it, you may move a +1/+1 counter from this permanent onto that creature.”
      • 702.57b If a permanent has multiple instances of graft, each one works separately.
    • 702.58. Recover
      • 702.58a Recover is a triggered ability that functions only while the card with recover is in a player’s graveyard. “Recover [cost]” means “When a creature is put into your graveyard from the battlefield, you may pay [cost]. If you do, return this card from your graveyard to your hand. Otherwise, exile this card.”
    • 702.59. Ripple
      • 702.59a Ripple is a triggered ability that functions only while the card with ripple is on the stack. “Ripple N” means “When you cast this spell, you may reveal the top N cards of your library, or, if there are fewer than N cards in your library, you may reveal all the cards in your library. If you reveal cards from your library this way, you may cast any of those cards with the same name as this spell without paying their mana costs, then put all revealed cards not cast this way on the bottom of your library in any order.”
      • 702.59b If a spell has multiple instances of ripple, each triggers separately.
    • 702.60. Split Second
      • 702.60a Split second is a static ability that functions only while the spell with split second is on the stack. “Split second” means “As long as this spell is on the stack, players can’t cast other spells or activate abilities that aren’t mana abilities.”
      • 702.60b Players may activate mana abilities and take special actions while a spell with split second is on the stack. Triggered abilities trigger and are put on the stack as normal while a spell with split second is on the stack.
      • 702.60c Multiple instances of split second on the same spell are redundant.
    • 702.61. Suspend
      • 702.61a Suspend is a keyword that represents three abilities. The first is a static ability that functions while the card with suspend is in a player’s hand. The second and third are triggered abilities that function in the exile zone. “Suspend N—[cost]” means “If you could begin to cast this card by putting it onto the stack from your hand, you may pay [cost] and exile it with N time counters on it. This action doesn’t use the stack,” and “At the beginning of your upkeep, if this card is suspended, remove a time counter from it,” and “When the last time counter is removed from this card, if it’s exiled, play it without paying its mana cost if able. If you can’t, it remains exiled. If you cast a creature spell this way, it gains haste until you lose control of the spell or the permanent it becomes.”
      • 702.61b A card is “suspended” if it’s in the exile zone, has suspend, and has a time counter on it.
      • 702.61c While determining if you could begin to cast a card with suspend, take into consideration any effects that would prohibit that card from being cast.
      • 702.61d Casting a spell as an effect of its suspend ability follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2f–h.
    • 702.62. Vanishing
      • 702.62a Vanishing is a keyword that represents three abilities. “Vanishing N” means “This permanent enters the battlefield with N time counters on it,” “At the beginning of your upkeep, if this permanent has a time counter on it, remove a time counter from it,” and “When the last time counter is removed from this permanent, sacrifice it.”
      • 702.62b Vanishing without a number means “At the beginning of your upkeep, if this permanent has a time counter on it, remove a time counter from it” and “When the last time counter is removed from this permanent, sacrifice it.”
      • 702.62c If a permanent has multiple instances of vanishing, each works separately.
    • 702.63. Absorb
      • 702.63a Absorb is a static ability. “Absorb N” means “If a source would deal damage to this creature, prevent N of that damage.”
      • 702.63b Each absorb ability can prevent only N damage from any one source at any one time. It will apply separately to damage from other sources, or to damage dealt by the same source at a different time.
      • 702.63c If an object has multiple instances of absorb, each applies separately.
    • 702.64. Aura Swap
      • 702.64a Aura swap is an activated ability of some Aura cards. “Aura swap [cost]” means “[Cost]: You may exchange this permanent with an Aura card in your hand.”
      • 702.64b If either half of the exchange can’t be completed, the ability has no effect.

        Example: You activate the aura swap ability of an Aura. The only Aura card in your hand can’t enchant the permanent that’s enchanted by the Aura with aura swap. The ability has no effect.

        Example: You activate the aura swap ability of an Aura that you control but you don’t own. The ability has no effect.

    • 702.65. Delve
      • 702.65a Delve is a static ability that functions while the spell with delve is on the stack. “Delve” means “For each generic mana in this spell’s total cost, you may exile a card from your graveyard rather than pay that mana.”
      • 702.65b The delve ability isn’t an additional or alternative cost and applies only after the total cost of the spell with delve is determined.
      • 702.65c Multiple instances of delve on the same spell are redundant.
    • 702.66. Fortify
      • 702.66a Fortify is an activated ability of Fortification cards. “Fortify [cost]” means “[Cost]: Attach this Fortification to target land you control. Activate this ability only any time you could cast a sorcery.”
      • 702.66b For more information about Fortifications, see rule 301, “Artifacts.”
      • 702.66c If a Fortification has multiple instances of fortify, any of its fortify abilities may be used.
    • 702.67. Frenzy
      • 702.67a Frenzy is a triggered ability. “Frenzy N” means “Whenever this creature attacks and isn’t blocked, it gets +N/+0 until end of turn.”
      • 702.67b If a creature has multiple instances of frenzy, each triggers separately.
    • 702.68. Gravestorm
      • 702.68a Gravestorm is a triggered ability that functions on the stack. “Gravestorm” means “When you cast this spell, copy it for each permanent that was put into a graveyard from the battlefield this turn. If the spell has any targets, you may choose new targets for any of the copies.”
      • 702.68b If a spell has multiple instances of gravestorm, each triggers separately.
    • 702.69. Poisonous
      • 702.69a Poisonous is a triggered ability. “Poisonous N” means “Whenever this creature deals combat damage to a player, that player gets N poison counters.” (For information about poison counters, see rule 104.3d.)
      • 702.69b If a creature has multiple instances of poisonous, each triggers separately.
    • 702.70. Transfigure
      • 702.70a Transfigure is an activated ability. “Transfigure [cost]” means “[Cost], Sacrifice this permanent: Search your library for a creature card with the same converted mana cost as this permanent and put it onto the battlefield. Then shuffle your library. Activate this ability only any time you could cast a sorcery.”
    • 702.71. Champion
      • 702.71a Champion represents two triggered abilities. “Champion an [object]” means “When this permanent enters the battlefield, sacrifice it unless you exile another [object] you control” and “When this permanent leaves the battlefield, return the exiled card to the battlefield under its owner’s control.”
      • 702.71b The two abilities represented by champion are linked. See rule 607, “Linked Abilities.”
      • 702.71c A permanent is “championed” by another permanent if the latter exiles the former as the direct result of a champion ability.
    • 702.72. Changeling
      • 702.72a Changeling is a characteristic-defining ability. “Changeling” means “This object is every creature type.” This ability works everywhere, even outside the game. See rule 604.3.
    • 702.73. Evoke
      • 702.73a Evoke represents two abilities: a static ability that functions in any zone from which the card with evoke can be cast and a triggered ability that functions on the battlefield. “Evoke [cost]” means “You may cast this card by paying [cost] rather than paying its mana cost” and “When this permanent enters the battlefield, if its evoke cost was paid, its controller sacrifices it.” Paying a card’s evoke cost follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2f–h.
    • 702.74. Hideaway
      • 702.74a Hideaway represents a static ability and a triggered ability. “Hideaway” means “This permanent enters the battlefield tapped” and “When this permanent enters the battlefield, look at the top four cards of your library. Exile one of them face down and put the rest on the bottom of your library in any order. The exiled card gains ‘Any player who has controlled the permanent that exiled this card may look at this card in the exile zone.’”
    • 702.75. Prowl
      • 702.75a Prowl is a static ability that functions on the stack. “Prowl [cost]” means “You may pay [cost] rather than pay this spell’s mana cost if a player was dealt combat damage this turn by a source that, at the time it dealt that damage, was under your control and had any of this spell’s creature types.” Paying a spell’s prowl cost follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2f–h.
    • 702.76. Reinforce
      • 702.76a Reinforce is an activated ability that functions only while the card with reinforce is in a player’s hand. “Reinforce N—[cost]” means “[Cost], Discard this card: Put N +1/+1 counters on target creature.”
      • 702.76b Although the reinforce ability can be activated only if the card is in a player’s hand, it continues to exist while the object is on the battlefield and in all other zones. Therefore objects with reinforce will be affected by effects that depend on objects having one or more activated abilities.
    • 702.77. Conspire
      • 702.77a Conspire is a keyword that represents two abilities. The first is a static ability that functions while the spell with conspire is on the stack. The second is a triggered ability that functions while the spell with conspire is on the stack. “Conspire” means “As an additional cost to cast this spell, you may tap two untapped creatures you control that each share a color with it” and “When you cast this spell, if its conspire cost was paid, copy it. If the spell has any targets, you may choose new targets for the copy.” Paying a spell’s conspire cost follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2f–h.
      • 702.77b If a spell has multiple instances of conspire, each is paid separately and triggers based on its own payment, not any other instance of conspire.
    • 702.78. Persist
      • 702.78a Persist is a triggered ability. “Persist” means “When this permanent is put into a graveyard from the battlefield, if it had no -1/-1 counters on it, return it to the battlefield under its owner’s control with a -1/-1 counter on it.”
    • 702.79. Wither
      • 702.79a Wither is a static ability. Damage dealt to a creature by a source with wither isn’t marked on that creature. Rather, it causes that source’s controller to put that many -1/-1 counters on that creature. See rule 119.3.
      • 702.79b If a permanent leaves the battlefield before an effect causes it to deal damage, its last known information is used to determine whether it had wither.
      • 702.79c The wither rules function no matter what zone an object with wither deals damage from.
      • 702.79d Multiple instances of wither on the same object are redundant.
    • 702.80. Retrace
      • 702.80a Retrace appears on some instants and sorceries. It represents a static ability that functions while the card with retrace is in a player’s graveyard. “Retrace” means “You may cast this card from your graveyard by discarding a land card as an additional cost to cast it.” Casting a spell using its retrace ability follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2f–h.
    • 702.81. Devour
      • 702.81a Devour is a static ability. “Devour N” means “As this object enters the battlefield, you may sacrifice any number of creatures. This permanent enters the battlefield with N +1/+1 counters on it for each creature sacrificed this way.”
      • 702.81b Some objects have abilities that refer to the number of creatures the permanent devoured. “It devoured” means “sacrificed as a result of its devour ability as it entered the battlefield.”
    • 702.82. Exalted
      • 702.82a Exalted is a triggered ability. “Exalted” means “Whenever a creature you control attacks alone, that creature gets +1/+1 until end of turn.”
      • 702.82b A creature “attacks alone” if it’s the only creature declared as an attacker in a given combat phase. See rule 506.5.
    • 702.83. Unearth
      • 702.83a Unearth is an activated ability that functions while the card with unearth is in a graveyard. “Unearth [cost]” means “[Cost]: Return this card from your graveyard to the battlefield. It gains haste. Exile it at the beginning of the next end step. If it would leave the battlefield, exile it instead of putting it anywhere else. Activate this ability only any time you could cast a sorcery.”
    • 702.84. Cascade
      • 702.84a Cascade is a triggered ability that functions only while the spell with cascade is on the stack. “Cascade” means “When you cast this spell, exile cards from the top of your library until you exile a nonland card whose converted mana cost is less than this spell’s converted mana cost. You may cast that card without paying its mana cost. Then put all cards exiled this way that weren’t cast on the bottom of your library in a random order.”
      • 702.84b If a spell has multiple instances of cascade, each triggers separately.
    • 702.85. Annihilator
      • 702.85a Annihilator is a triggered ability. “Annihilator N” means “Whenever this creature attacks, defending player sacrifices N permanents.”
      • 702.85b If a creature has multiple instances of annihilator, each triggers separately.
    • 702.86. Level Up
      • 702.86a Level up is an activated ability. “Level up [cost]” means “[Cost]: Put a level counter on this permanent. Activate this ability only any time you could cast a sorcery.”
      • 702.86b Each card printed with a level up ability is known as a leveler card. It has a nonstandard layout and includes two level symbols that are themselves keyword abilities. See rule 710, “Leveler Cards.”
    • 702.87. Rebound
      • 702.87a Rebound appears on some instants and sorceries. It represents a static ability that functions while the spell is on the stack and may create a delayed triggered ability. “Rebound” means “If this spell was cast from your hand, instead of putting it into your graveyard as it resolves, exile it and, at the beginning of your next upkeep, you may cast this card from exile without paying its mana cost.”
      • 702.87b Casting a card without paying its mana cost as the result of a rebound ability follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2f–h.
      • 702.87c Multiple instances of rebound on the same spell are redundant.
    • 702.88. Totem Armor
      • 702.88a Totem armor is a static ability that appears on some Auras. “Totem armor” means “If enchanted permanent would be destroyed, instead remove all damage marked on it and destroy this Aura.”
    • 702.89. Infect
      • 702.89a Infect is a static ability.
      • 702.89b Damage dealt to a player by a source with infect doesn’t cause that player to lose life. Rather, it causes that source’s controller to give the player that many poison counters. See rule 119.3.
      • 702.89c Damage dealt to a creature by a source with infect isn’t marked on that creature. Rather, it causes that source’s controller to put that many -1/-1 counters on that creature. See rule 119.3.
      • 702.89d If a permanent leaves the battlefield before an effect causes it to deal damage, its last known information is used to determine whether it had infect.
      • 702.89e The infect rules function no matter what zone an object with infect deals damage from.
      • 702.89f Multiple instances of infect on the same object are redundant.
    • 702.90. Battle Cry
      • 702.90a Battle cry is a triggered ability. “Battle cry” means “Whenever this creature attacks, each other attacking creature gets +1/+0 until end of turn.”
      • 702.90b If a creature has multiple instances of battle cry, each triggers separately.
    • 702.91. Living Weapon
      • 702.91a Living weapon is a triggered ability. “Living weapon” means “When this Equipment enters the battlefield, create a 0/0 black Germ creature token, then attach this Equipment to it.”
    • 702.92. Undying
      • 702.92a Undying is a triggered ability. “Undying” means “When this permanent is put into a graveyard from the battlefield, if it had no +1/+1 counters on it, return it to the battlefield under its owner’s control with a +1/+1 counter on it.”
    • 702.93. Miracle
      • 702.93a Miracle is a static ability linked to a triggered ability (see rule 603.11). “Miracle [cost]” means “You may reveal this card from your hand as you draw it if it’s the first card you’ve drawn this turn. When you reveal this card this way, you may cast it by paying [cost] rather than its mana cost.”
      • 702.93b If a player chooses to reveal a card using its miracle ability, they play with that card revealed until that card leaves their hand, that ability resolves, or that ability otherwise leaves the stack.
    • 702.94. Soulbond
      • 702.94a Soulbond is a keyword that represents two triggered abilities. “Soulbond” means “When this creature enters the battlefield, if you control both this creature and another creature and both are unpaired, you may pair this creature with another unpaired creature you control for as long as both remain creatures on the battlefield under your control” and “Whenever another creature enters the battlefield under your control, if you control both that creature and this one and both are unpaired, you may pair that creature with this creature for as long as both remain creatures on the battlefield under your control.”
      • 702.94b A creature becomes “paired” with another as the result of a soulbond ability. Abilities may refer to a paired creature, the creature another creature is paired with, or whether a creature is paired. An “unpaired” creature is one that is not paired.
      • 702.94c When the soulbond ability resolves, if either object that would be paired is no longer a creature, no longer on the battlefield, or no longer under the control of the player who controls the soulbond ability, neither object becomes paired.
      • 702.94d A creature can be paired with only one other creature.
      • 702.94e A paired creature becomes unpaired if any of the following occur: another player gains control of it or the creature it’s paired with; it or the creature it’s paired with stops being a creature; or it or the creature it’s paired with leaves the battlefield.
    • 702.95. Overload
      • 702.95a Overload is a keyword that represents two static abilities that function while the spell with overload is on the stack. Overload [cost] means “You may choose to pay [cost] rather than pay this spell’s mana cost” and “If you chose to pay this spell’s overload cost, change its text by replacing all instances of the word ‘target’ with the word ‘each.’” Using the overload ability follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2f–h.
      • 702.95b If a player chooses to pay the overload cost of a spell, that spell won’t require any targets. It may affect objects that couldn’t be chosen as legal targets if the spell were cast without its overload cost being paid.
      • 702.95c Overload’s second ability creates a text-changing effect. See rule 612, “Text-Changing Effects.”
    • 702.96. Scavenge
      • 702.96a Scavenge is an activated ability that functions only while the card with scavenge is in a graveyard. “Scavenge [cost]” means “[Cost], Exile this card from your graveyard: Put a number of +1/+1 counters equal to the power of the card you exiled on target creature. Activate this ability only any time you could cast a sorcery.”
    • 702.97. Unleash
      • 702.97a Unleash is a keyword that represents two static abilities. “Unleash” means “You may have this permanent enter the battlefield with an additional +1/+1 counter on it” and “This permanent can’t block as long as it has a +1/+1 counter on it.”
    • 702.98. Cipher
      • 702.98a Cipher appears on some instants and sorceries. It represents two abilities. The first is a spell ability that functions while the spell with cipher is on the stack. The second is a static ability that functions while the card with cipher is in the exile zone. “Cipher” means “If this spell is represented by a card, you may exile this card encoded on a creature you control” and “For as long as this card is encoded on that creature, that creature has ‘Whenever this creature deals combat damage to a player, you may copy the encoded card and you may cast the copy without paying its mana cost.’”
      • 702.98b The term “encoded” describes the relationship between the card with cipher while in the exile zone and the creature chosen when the spell represented by that card resolves.
      • 702.98c The card with cipher remains encoded on the chosen creature as long as the card with cipher remains exiled and the creature remains on the battlefield. The card remains encoded on that object even if it changes controller or stops being a creature, as long as it remains on the battlefield.
    • 702.99. Evolve
      • 702.99a Evolve is a triggered ability. “Evolve” means “Whenever a creature enters the battlefield under your control, if that creature’s power is greater than this creature’s power and/or that creature’s toughness is greater than this creature’s toughness, put a +1/+1 counter on this creature.”
      • 702.99b A creature “evolves” when one or more +1/+1 counters are put on it as a result of its evolve ability resolving.
      • 702.99c A creature can’t have a greater power or toughness than a noncreature permanent.
      • 702.99d If a creature has multiple instances of evolve, each triggers separately.
    • 702.100. Extort
      • 702.100a Extort is a triggered ability. “Extort” means “Whenever you cast a spell, you may pay WB. If you do, each opponent loses 1 life and you gain life equal to the total life lost this way.”
      • 702.100b If a permanent has multiple instances of extort, each triggers separately.
    • 702.101. Fuse
      • 702.101a Fuse is a static ability found on some split cards (see rule 708, “Split Cards”) that applies while the card with fuse is in a player’s hand. If a player casts a split card with fuse from their hand, the player may choose to cast both halves of that split card rather than choose one half. This choice is made before putting the split card with fuse onto the stack. The resulting spell is a fused split spell.
      • 702.101b A fused split spell has the combined characteristics of its two halves. (See rule 708.4.)
      • 702.101c The total cost of a fused split spell includes the mana cost of each half.
      • 702.101d As a fused split spell resolves, the controller of the spell follows the instructions of the left half and then follows the instructions of the right half.
    • 702.102. Bestow
      • 702.102a Bestow represents two static abilities, one that functions while the card with bestow is on the stack and another that functions both while it’s on the stack and while it’s on the battlefield. “Bestow [cost]” means “You may cast this card by paying [cost] rather than its mana cost.” and “If you chose to pay this spell’s bestow cost, it becomes an Aura enchantment and gains enchant creature. These effects last until one of two things happens: this spell has an illegal target as it resolves or the permanent this spell becomes, becomes unattached.” Paying a card’s bestow cost follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2f–h.
      • 702.102b If a spell’s controller chooses to pay its bestow cost, that player chooses a legal target for that Aura spell as defined by its enchant creature ability and rule 601.2c. See also rule 303.4.
      • 702.102c The check for whether a spell can legally be cast happens after its controller has chosen whether to pay its bestow cost; see rule 601.2e.

        Example: Aether Storm is an enchantment with the ability “Creature spells can’t be cast.” This effect doesn’t stop a creature card with bestow from being cast for its bestow cost because the spell is an Aura enchantment spell, not an enchantment creature spell, when the game checks whether the spell is illegal.

      • 702.102d As an Aura spell with bestow begins resolving, if its target is illegal, the effect making it an Aura spell ends. It continues resolving as a creature spell and will be put onto the battlefield under the control of the spell’s controller. This is an exception to rule 608.3a.
      • 702.102e If an Aura with bestow is attached to an illegal object or player, it becomes unattached. This is an exception to rule 704.5m.
    • 702.103. Tribute
      • 702.103a Tribute is a static ability that functions as the creature with tribute is entering the battlefield. “Tribute N” means “As this creature enters the battlefield, choose an opponent. That player may put an additional N +1/+1 counters on it as it enters the battlefield.”
      • 702.103b Objects with tribute have triggered abilities that check “if tribute wasn’t paid.” This condition is true if the opponent chosen as a result of the tribute ability didn’t have the creature enter the battlefield with +1/+1 counters as specified by the creature’s tribute ability.
    • 702.104. Dethrone
      • 702.104a Dethrone is a triggered ability. “Dethrone” means “Whenever this creature attacks the player with the most life or tied for most life, put a +1/+1 counter on this creature.”
      • 702.104b If a creature has multiple instances of dethrone, each triggers separately.
    • 702.105. Hidden Agenda
      • 702.105a Hidden agenda is a static ability that functions as a conspiracy card with hidden agenda is put into the command zone. “Hidden agenda” means “As you put this conspiracy card into the command zone, turn it face down and secretly choose a card name.”
      • 702.105b To secretly choose a card name, note that name on a piece of paper kept with the face-down conspiracy card.
      • 702.105c Any time you have priority, you may turn a face-down conspiracy card you control in the command zone face up. This is a special action. Doing so will reveal the chosen name. See rule 115.2h.
      • 702.105d Hidden agenda and another ability of the object with hidden agenda that refers to “the chosen name” are linked. The second ability refers only to the card name chosen as a result of that object’s hidden agenda ability. See rule 607.2d.
      • 702.105e If a player leaves the game, all face-down conspiracy cards controlled by that player must be revealed to all players. At the end of each game, all face-down conspiracy cards must be revealed to all players.
      • 702.105f Double agenda is a variant of the hidden agenda ability. As you put a conspiracy card with double agenda into the command zone, you secretly name two different cards rather than one. You don’t reveal that more than one name was secretly chosen until you reveal the chosen names.
    • 702.106. Outlast
      • 702.106a Outlast is an activated ability. “Outlast [cost]” means “[Cost], Mana Tap: Put a +1/+1 counter on this creature. Activate this ability only any time you could cast a sorcery.”
    • 702.107. Prowess
      • 702.107a Prowess is a triggered ability. “Prowess” means “Whenever you cast a noncreature spell, this creature gets +1/+1 until end of turn.”
      • 702.107b If a creature has multiple instances of prowess, each triggers separately.
    • 702.108. Dash
      • 702.108a Dash represents three abilities: two static abilities that function while the card with dash is on the stack, one of which may create a delayed triggered ability, and a static ability that functions while the object with dash is on the battlefield. “Dash [cost]” means “You may cast this card by paying [cost] rather than its mana cost,” “If this spell’s dash cost was paid, return the permanent this spell becomes to its owner’s hand at the beginning of the next end step,” and “As long as this permanent’s dash cost was paid, it has haste.” Paying a card’s dash cost follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2f–h.
    • 702.109. Exploit
      • 702.109a Exploit is a triggered ability. “Exploit” means “When this creature enters the battlefield, you may sacrifice a creature.”
      • 702.109b A creature with exploit “exploits a creature” when the controller of the exploit ability sacrifices a creature as that ability resolves.
    • 702.110. Menace
      • 702.110a Menace is an evasion ability.
      • 702.110b A creature with menace can’t be blocked except by two or more creatures. (See rule 509, “Declare Blockers Step.”)
      • 702.110c Multiple instances of menace on the same creature are redundant.
    • 702.111. Renown
      • 702.111a Renown is a triggered ability. “Renown N” means “When this creature deals combat damage to a player, if it isn’t renowned, put N +1/+1 counters on it and it becomes renowned.”
      • 702.111b Renowned is a designation that has no rules meaning other than to act as a marker that the renown ability and other spells and abilities can identify. Only permanents can be or become renowned. Once a permanent becomes renowned, it stays renowned until it leaves the battlefield. Renowned is neither an ability nor part of the permanent’s copiable values.
      • 702.111c If a creature has multiple instances of renown, each triggers separately. The first such ability to resolve will cause the creature to become renowned, and subsequent abilities will have no effect. (See rule 603.4)
    • 702.112. Awaken
      • 702.112a Awaken appears on some instants and sorceries. It represents two abilities: a static ability that functions while the spell with awaken is on the stack and a spell ability. “Awaken N—[cost]” means “You may pay [cost] rather than pay this spell’s mana cost as you cast this spell” and “If this spell’s awaken cost was paid, put N +1/+1 counters on target land you control. That land becomes a 0/0 Elemental creature with haste. It’s still a land.” Paying a spell’s awaken cost follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2f–h.
      • 702.112b The controller of a spell with awaken chooses the target of the awaken spell ability only if that player chose to pay the spell’s awaken cost. Otherwise the spell is cast as if it didn’t have that target.
    • 702.113. Devoid
      • 702.113a Devoid is a characteristic-defining ability. “Devoid” means “This object is colorless.” This ability functions everywhere, even outside the game. See rule 604.3.
    • 702.114. Ingest
      • 702.114a Ingest is a triggered ability. “Ingest” means “Whenever this creature deals combat damage to a player, that player exiles the top card of their library.”
      • 702.114b If a creature has multiple instances of ingest, each triggers separately.
    • 702.115. Myriad
      • 702.115a Myriad is a triggered ability that may also create a delayed triggered ability. “Myriad” means “Whenever this creature attacks, for each opponent other than defending player, you may create a token that’s a copy of this creature that’s tapped and attacking that player or a planeswalker they control. If one or more tokens are created this way, exile the tokens at end of combat.”
      • 702.115b If a creature has multiple instances of myriad, each triggers separately.
    • 702.116. Surge
      • 702.116a Surge is a static ability that functions while the spell with surge is on the stack. “Surge [cost]” means “You may pay [cost] rather than pay this spell’s mana cost as you cast this spell if you or one of your teammates has cast another spell this turn.” Paying a spell’s surge cost follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2f–h.
    • 702.117. Skulk
      • 702.117a Skulk is an evasion ability.
      • 702.117b A creature with skulk can’t be blocked by creatures with greater power. (See rule 509, “Declare Blockers Step.”)
      • 702.117c Multiple instances of skulk on the same creature are redundant.
    • 702.118. Emerge
      • 702.118a Emerge represents two static abilities that function while the spell with emerge is on the stack. “Emerge [cost]” means “You may cast this spell by paying [cost] and sacrificing a creature rather than paying its mana cost” and “If you chose to pay this spell’s emerge cost, its total cost is reduced by an amount of generic mana equal to the sacrificed creature’s converted mana cost.” Paying a card’s emerge cost follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2f–h.
      • 702.118b You choose which creature to sacrifice as you choose to pay a spell’s emerge cost (see rule 601.2b), and you sacrifice that creature as you pay the total cost (see rule 601.2h).
    • 702.119. Escalate
      • 702.119a Escalate is a static ability of modal spells (see rule 700.2) that functions while the spell with escalate is on the stack. “Escalate [cost]” means “For each mode you choose beyond the first as you cast this spell, you pay an additional [cost].” Paying a spell’s escalate cost follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 601.2f–h.
    • 702.120. Melee
      • 702.120a Melee is a triggered ability. “Melee” means “Whenever this creature attacks, it gets +1/+1 until end of turn for each opponent you attacked with a creature this combat.”
      • 702.120b If a creature has multiple instances of melee, each triggers separately.
    • 702.121. Crew
      • 702.121a Crew is an activated ability of Vehicle cards. “Crew N” means “Tap any number of untapped creatures you control with total power N or greater: This permanent becomes an artifact creature until end of turn.”
      • 702.121b A creature “crews a Vehicle” when it’s tapped to pay the cost to activate a Vehicle’s crew ability.
      • 702.121c If an effect states that a creature “can’t crew Vehicles,” that creature can’t be tapped to pay the crew cost of a Vehicle.
    • 702.122. Fabricate
      • 702.122a Fabricate is a triggered ability. “Fabricate N” means “When this permanent enters the battlefield, you may put N +1/+1 counters on it. If you don’t, create N 1/1 colorless Servo artifact creature tokens.”
      • 702.122b If a permanent has multiple instances of fabricate, each triggers separately.
    • 702.123. Partner
      • 702.123a Partner is an ability that modifies the rules for deck construction in the Commander variant (see rule 903), and it functions before the game begins. Rather than a single legendary creature card, you may designate two legendary creature cards as your commander if each has partner.
      • 702.123b Your deck must contain exactly 100 cards, including its two commanders. Both commanders begin the game in the command zone.
      • 702.123c A rule or effect that refers to your commander’s color identity refers to the combined color identities of your two commanders. See rule 903.4.
      • 702.123d Except for determining the color identity of your commander, the two commanders function independently. When casting a commander with partner, ignore how many times your other commander has been cast. When determining whether a player has been dealt 21 or more combat damage by the same commander, consider damage from each of your two commanders separately. See rule 903.11a.
      • 702.123e If an effect refers to your commander while you have two commanders, it refers to either one. If an effect causes you to perform an action on your commander and it could affect both, you choose which it refers to at the time the effect is applied.
      • 702.123f “Partner with [name]” is a variant of the partner ability. “Partner with [name]” represents two abilities. One is a static ability that modifies the rules for deck construction. Rather than a single legendary creature card, you may designate two legendary creature cards as your commander if each has a “partner with [name]” ability with the other’s name. You can’t designate two legendary cards as your commander if one has a “partner with [name]” ability and the other isn’t the named card. The other ability represented by “partner with [name]” is a triggered ability that means “When this permanent enters the battlefield, target player may search their library for a card named [name], reveal it, put it into their hand, then shuffle their library.”
    • 702.124. Undaunted
      • 702.124a Undaunted is a static ability that functions while the spell with undaunted is on the stack. Undaunted means “This spell costs C1 less to cast for each opponent you have.”
      • 702.124b Players who have left the game are not counted when determining how many opponents you have.
      • 702.124c If a spell has multiple instances of undaunted, each of them applies.
    • 702.125. Improvise
      • 702.125a Improvise is a static ability that functions while the spell with improvise is on the stack. “Improvise” means “For each generic mana in this spell’s total cost, you may tap an untapped artifact you control rather than pay that mana.”
      • 702.125b The improvise ability isn’t an additional or alternative cost and applies only after the total cost of the spell with improvise is determined.
      • 702.125c Multiple instances of improvise on the same spell are redundant.
    • 702.126. Aftermath
      • 702.126a Aftermath is an ability found on some split cards (see rule 708, “Split Cards”). It represents three static abilities. “Aftermath” means “You may cast this half of this split card from your graveyard,” “This half of this split card can’t be cast from any zone other than a graveyard,” and “If this spell was cast from a graveyard, exile it instead of putting it anywhere else any time it would leave the stack.”
    • 702.127. Embalm
      • 702.127a Embalm is an activated ability that functions while the card with embalm is in a graveyard. “Embalm [cost]” means “[Cost], Exile this card from your graveyard: Create a token that’s a copy of this card, except it’s white, it has no mana cost, and it’s a Zombie in addition to its other types. Activate this ability only any time you could cast a sorcery.”
      • 702.127b A token is “embalmed” if it’s created by a resolving embalm ability.
    • 702.128. Eternalize
      • 702.128a Eternalize is an activated ability that functions while the card with eternalize is in a graveyard. “Eternalize [cost]” means “[Cost], Exile this card from your graveyard: Create a token that’s a copy of this card, except it’s black, it’s 4/4, it has no mana cost, and it’s a Zombie in addition to its other types. Activate this ability only any time you could cast a sorcery.”
    • 702.129. Afflict
      • 702.129a Afflict is a triggered ability. “Afflict N” means “Whenever this creature becomes blocked, defending player loses N life.”
      • 702.129b If a creature has multiple instances of afflict, each triggers separately.
    • 702.130. Ascend
      • 702.130a Ascend on an instant or sorcery spell represents a spell ability. It means “If you control ten or more permanents and you don’t have the city’s blessing, you get the city’s blessing for the rest of the game.”
      • 702.130b Ascend on a permanent represents a static ability. It means “Any time you control ten or more permanents and you don’t have the city’s blessing, you get the city’s blessing for the rest of the game.”
      • 702.130c The city’s blessing is a designation that has no rules meaning other than to act as a marker that other rules and effects can identify. Any number of players may have the city’s blessing at the same time.
      • 702.130d After a player gets the city’s blessing, continuous effects are reapplied before the game checks to see if the game state or preceding events have matched any trigger conditions.
    • 702.131. Assist
      • 702.131a Assist is a static ability that modifies the rules of paying for the spell with assist (see rules 601.2g-h). If the total cost to cast a spell with assist includes a generic mana component, before you activate mana abilities while casting it, you may choose another player. That player has a chance to activate mana abilities. Once that player chooses not to activate any more mana abilities, you have a chance to activate mana abilities. Before you begin to pay the total cost of the spell, the player you chose may pay for any amount of the generic mana in the spell’s total cost.
    • 702.132. Jump-Start
      • 702.132a Jump-start appears on some instants and sorceries. It represents two static abilities: one that functions while the card is in a player’s graveyard and another that functions while the card is on the stack. “Jump-start” means “You may cast this card from your graveyard by discarding a card as an additional cost to cast it” and “If this spell was cast using its jump-start ability, exile this card instead of putting it anywhere else any time it would leave the stack.” Casting a spell using its jump-start ability follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2f–h.
    • 702.133. Mentor
      • 702.133a Mentor is a triggered ability. “Mentor” means “Whenever this creature attacks, put a +1/+1 counter on target attacking creature with power less than this creature’s power.”
      • 702.133b If a creature has multiple instances of mentor, each triggers separately.